RASOR user interface
The user interface presents a collection of modules that deal with a specific task in the impacts analysis process: Monitor, Exposure, Hazard, Direct Impact, Systemic Impact, Report
The user can switch from one module to another in order to generate the specific layer required for the impact analysis.
Monitor (default page)
The Monitor Module is a consultation section that allows the user to access all the information on Hazard, Exposure, Impacts, which are already available in the system (database and catalog) and which can be used for further elaboration.
Different type of filter facilitate to browse the available layers:
• geographical domain: the system only make available those layer that intersect the current geographic window
• hazard types (light blue icons)
• exposure categories (violet icons)
• impacts types (orange icons)
• layer name (text)
The query results in a list of available layers. Three categories of layers (hazard, exposure, impact) can be visually distinguished because of their side band color: violet for exposure, light blue for hazards, orange for impacts. Besides, also support layers that do not necessarily belong to one of these three categories will be visualised (black side band). Each layer in the list is characterized by a thumbnail showing a preview of the layer, the name of the layer, the date of insertion in the catalog and three icons associated to three actions:
• clicking on the world icon, it becomes green, the layer is shown on the map and other two icons appear – the 4-divergent-arrow icon allowing the user to zoom to the layer, and the table icon showing the corresponding legend; clicking again on the world icon, the layer is removed from the map;
• clicking on the pencil icon, the RASOR GeoNode catalog is opened in another tab and the user can edit the layer metadata;
• clicking on the trash bin icon, the user can remove the layer from the catalog.
The exposure module is aimed at assets characterisation. These elaborations produce a description of the assets such as buildings, road, facilities, using a predefined set of attributes. These indicators are then used in the "Direct impact" module to compute potential losses, thought the association of vulnerability curves.
The user can import features from an external GIS file, from Open Street Map or modify an existing layer.
Import features from an external GIS file
A drag-and-drop and browse menu allow users to upload their GIS files (geotiff or shape format) into the platform.
When importing assets from an external GIS file, the user is asked to relate features of the original file with taxonomy required by the Rasor platform.
The amount attribute required for the characterisation depends on the type of asset (building, road, facility, etc.), the impact type (physical, economic, etc.), the type of hazards: an asset may be characterised for one hazard (e.g. only for flood) or for multiple (tsunami and earthquake).
The required attribute of RASOR taxonomy are presented with different colours, ranging from white-yellow to red, according to their importance. Attributes in grey colour means are not necessary for that specific computation.
The association is made by dragging and dropping the attributes of the original taxonomy into the RASOR taxonomy.
Once the attribute is associated, the user is asked to match the values for this attribute. Values can be of two type: categorised or numeric. Categorised values are presented in a list of predefined values, from which the user has to choose one. Example:
Attribute = "foundation type". Possible values = "piers", "slab".
If the value is "numeric", the user is asked to enter a number. Example:
Attribute = "number of stories". Possible values = 1,2,3,4,etc.
When the association is completed the user click on close, and the name of attributed turns into green, in order to remind the user that the association is completed.
When all attributes are characterised, the user is asked to choose a name for the current layer and save into the database. The name should respect the RASOR_Database_and_Catalog#RASOR_nomenclature. After saving, the user is asked to fill in the metadata form.
Modify an existing layer
When the user chooses to modify an existing layer, a window opens listing the available layers in the area.
The selected layer is shown on the map. The user can choose among different hazards and different typologies of impact in order to evaluate the suitability of the exposure characterization for the damage assessment. If an exposed element is displayed as red, its characterization doesn't allow for the evaluation of any indicator available for the specific combination hazard-impact; otherwise, if the element is displayed in green, in the Direct Impact module it will be possible to evaluate all the available indicators.
The user can choose the elements to be modified by selecting by area or by attributes.
Clicking on the edit button, a window opens showing the elements that are not suitably characterized in red. For the attributes whose value must be chosen within a dropdown list, the user can also evaluate the amount of changes performed (number of modified items and corresponding surface) by clicking on the blue icon. Once a proper value has been inserted and the change validated, the corresponding attribute becomes green.
When the user finishes to modify the attributes, he/she must click the close button. Now the modified elements are displayed accordingly to their new level of characterization with respect to the combination hazard-impact type.
If the information about population living in the buildings is not present in the layer, the user can add it by distributing a total amount of population over a selected number of buildings. Such total number of people is distributed taking into account the surface of the buildings and the number of stories.
The hazard module aims to compute hazard spatialisation either from simulated scenarios or from direct observation. The system presents several modelling options of different hazards, according to the study case.
When entered the hazard module, the user is ask either to import an external hazard map (e.g. flood water depth, shake map, etc.) or to generate it inside RASOR using the models embedded within the platform. In the last case, the interface presents several hazard phenomena that can be modeled:
- Riverine Flood
- Coastal flood
- Pluvial Flooding
- Wind storm
Each model is implemented in a specific test site, according to the hazards that can potentially affect that area.
Cilacap (Tsunami and Co-seismic ground displacement)
Algorithms for tsunami in Cilacap and Co-seismic displacement after an Earthquake have been implemented in the first prototype.
The near shore wave height model implemented in Cilacap generates a scenario map of the flooding caused by a wave in a predefined line. The user must choose a wave height (expressed in meters) and define a name for the run, then clicl the play button.
Once the simulation is completed, results are shown on the map in terms of water height, and the user is required to edit the layer metadata. The run is now in the catalog, and thus it can be viewed in the monitor and used as base layer in the impact sections.
The co-seismic ground displacement scenario model generates a scenario map of the possible ground displacements associated to a simulated earthquake. If any fault is already present in the RASOR database for the selected area, the user can choose among them. Anyway, the user can create a new fault by inserting some parameters.
A fully distributed hydrological (WFLOW) is coupled with a bi-dimensional hydraulic model (SubGrid) to produce inundation maps starting from rainfall field. The user inserts a rainfall graph which will generate a uniform dynamic rainfall field. The hydrological model takes the rainfall field as input and transform it into discharge at several watershed outlets. Discharge constitutes the boundary condition for the hydraulic model, which propagates water in the urban area and generate flood maps.
Hurricane impacts result from the interaction of different phenomena which take place at the same time: storm surge, strong wind, heavy rainfall, flood. These phenomena combined together can cause dangerous flood in Gonaives area (2004, 2005, 2008). A complex modelling chain considers all these aspects in order to reproduce a costal-riverine flood.
- Wind generator produces a wind field from a user-defined or historical hurricane track. The module, called WES (Wind Enhance Scheme) was initially developed by the UK Met Office following the theory from Holland (1980, 2008).
- A model called R-CLIPER is employed to generate a rainfall field from a hurricane track. This model was developed by Robert Tuleya and co-workers from NOAA (Tuleya et al, 2007).
- A fully distributed hydrological model transform the rainfield input into discharge outputs.
- Delft 3D simulates the sea wave propagation and generate the storm surge which is used as a boundary condition by the bi-dimensional hydraulic model (Subgrid).
- The bi-dimensional hydraulic model (Subgrid) is driven by the sea water level and riverine overtopping discharges and propagates water flow in urban areas.
The user simulates the effect of an hurricane. the user is asked to draw an hurricane track, by clicking several consecutive points and assign to each of them date-time and wind speed.
For guidance purposes, the user can display historical hurricane tracks (grouped by year).
Alternatively the user can start by loading an historical from the track database, which contains all historical hurricanes and tropical storm from 1842 to 2015. The RASOR hurricane track database is based on the National Hurricane Centre, USA. This option was explicitly requested during the RASOR User Workshop (Stuart Fraser, WB, on behalf of Group 2, RASOR User Workshop Report). Once the historical track is loaded, it can be modified in terms of both position and intensity in order to create “what-if” scenarios.
Port au Prince (Earthquake)
Three algorithms compute three different aspects of a seismic hazard in Port au Prince. The shake map model (by USGS) produces simulated peak ground acceleration (pga) fields, pick ground velocity (pgv) fields that can be used by the vulnerability models (vulnerability curves) to computes damage. The “Post seismic stress load” model gives stress field after an Earthquake even. Co-seismic displacement model produces a map of displacement map that occurred during the event. That map can be overlapped with linear facilities (water, gas pipelines) to detect high risk of failure spots.
Rotterdam (riverine flood caused levee breach)
The Rotterdam SubGrid model calculates the flood pattern after levee breaches. Below is an example flood pattern after a double levee breach. Breach locations are indicated by pins.
Italy (riverine flood caused levee breach by and earthquake)
Similarly to the modelling chain implemented for Rotterdam case study, the SubGrid model calculates the flood pattern originated by either overtopping or levee breaches. The input of the modelling chain is a pick discharge value, which should be entered by the user. A pre-processing algorithm computes the input hydrograph based on a standard non-dimensional shape. The user choses one or more breach point along the river and enter the fragility parameters (flood fragility curves), which relates the breach probability to the river water level.
For earthquake, the seismic model are those already implemented for the Haiti study case.
Santorini (coastal flood originated by rock fall and earthquake)
The Santorini model calculates the propagation of waves after an initial perturbation of the water surface caused by a landslide. Below is an example of the wave pattern after a landslide.
EO-based flood delineation maps are now presented for the five test case areas. All these maps are catalogued following the GIO-EMS classification standards. A prototypal simplified algorithm, based on flood extent and the high resolution DTM (TanDEM-X) converts the flood extent into water depth. This algorithm should be still tested and might need final refinements. The water depth map, although simplistic and rough, can be used to assessment the order of magnitude of physical and economical losses over an area.
Assets can be mapped with respect to their features and the possibility of applying the vulnerability curves. The user selects an exposure layer and a vulnerability curve library and the system evaluate the applicability of this specific vulnerability curve library: for each asset the system tries to associate a vulnerability curve. If, at least, one curve is found the asset is turned into green, otherwise it stays grey.
Each curve can be visualised, explored and modified.
The user has to select the vulnerability curve library and than the hazard type.
The system also gives the possibility to copy existing vulnerability curves and modify them as the user wishes. These new vulnerability curves will be saved into the user personal library.
Copy and modification of vulnerability curves
A copy button allows the user to copy an existing library in his/her own profile. The new curves will keep the association to the exposure attributes of the original curves. Besides, unlike the system vulnerability curve that can be used but not modified, the user can edit his/her own library.
Curves can be graphically adjusted by clicking of the graph and dragging single point of the curves.
This module combines exposure and hazard layers through the application of vulnerability functions in order to determine impacts on assets. Depending on the exposure characterisation, the user can perform computation on physical, economical, social, environmental focusing on different aspects (target) of the asset: structure, content, car, population.
For instance, through this module the user can answer to a set of predefined questions, such as:
• how many building may be affected and how?
• what is the estimated economical damage over the affected area?
• what is the estimated economical damage in a single structure?
• how many people can be possibly affected?
• how many people need to be sheltered?
• are there impacts to critical infrastructures?
Different impact indicators can be generated depending on the impact type and the target of the asset (aspects of the considered asset):
The list of available indicators, subdivided for impact type.
• Physical damage to structure (%)
• Physical damage to content (%)
• Physical damage to car (%)
• Economic damage to structure ($)
• Economic damage to content ($)
• Economic damage to car ($)
• Economic damage to structure per m2($)
• Economic damage to content per m2($)
Indicators on population:
• People affected in high hazard/risk zone (amount)
• People affected in medium hazard/risk zone (amount)
• People affected in low hazard/risk zone (amount)
• People with special needs (amount)
• Ethnical minorities affected (amount)
• Females affected (amount)
• Males affected affected (amount)
• Migrant workers affected (amount)
• People in school age (5<age<16) affected (amount)
• Elderly (age>65) affected (amount)
• Young children (age<5) affected (amount)
For each indicator, an impact map is presented, showing damage spatialisation on single assets.
The “Report” section presents the quantitative indicators of the impact computation. The user is asked to load an already-computed impact layer.
Layer title and abstract are automatically displayed. Also, information on the input that have produced this particular impact layer is shown: hazard layer, exposure layer, vulnerability curve library.
Depending on the typology of the indicator, metrics such as total amount mean will be displayed. Pie chart and diagrams are also automatically created.
Reports can be saved as .pdf file or sent to print. An example of RASOR report can be downloaded here ( File:Report cilacap-wave-height-2m.pdf )